Saturday, December 15, 2012

Table of keyboard shortcuts

In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a sequence or combination of keystrokes on a computer keyboard which invokes commands in software.
Some keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously. Keyboard shortcuts may depend on the keyboard layout (localisation).

Comparison of keyboard shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are a common aspect of most modern operating systems and associated software applications. Their use is pervasive enough that some users consider them an essential element of their routine interactions with a computer. Whether used as a matter of personal preference or for adaptive technology, the pervasiveness of common conventions enables the comparison of keyboard shortcuts across different systems. The following sections detail some of these comparisons in widely used operating systems.

[edit]General shortcuts

A note regarding KDE's shortcuts is that they can be changed and the below list contains the defaults.
ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacs
File menuAlt+FCtrl+F2, then FAlt+FMeta+`, then f
Edit menuAlt+ECtrl+F2, then EAlt+EMeta+`, then e
View menuAlt+VCtrl+F2, then VAlt+V
Undo the last operationCtrl+Z Cmd+ZCtrl+ZCtrl+x, then u
or Ctrl+/
or Ctrl+_
or Undo
Redo the last operationCtrl+Y Shift+ Cmd+Z Shift+Ctrl+ZSame as undo, when undo is exhausted, it redoes. Move the cursor after one or more undos, and further undos will be redos.
Cut the selected area and store it in the clipboardCtrl+X, or Shift+Del Cmd+XCtrl+XCtrl+w
Copy the selected area into theclipboardCtrl+C, orCtrl+Ins Cmd+CCtrl+CMeta+w, or Ctrl+Ins
Paste contents of clipboard at cursorCtrl+V, or Shift+Ins Cmd+VCtrl+VCtrl+y, or  Shift+Ins, or
Paste specialCtrl+Alt+VCtrl+ Shift+VMeta+y
Select everything in focused control or windowCtrl+A Cmd+ACtrl+ACtrl+x, then h
Toggle among installed keyboard languages Shift+Alt Cmd+Space
Configure desired keypress in Keyboard and Mouse PreferencesKeyboard ShortcutsSelect the next source in Input menu.[1]
Ctrl+Alt+K via KDE Keyboard
 Shift+Alt in GNOME


ActionWindowsMac OSKDE/GNOME
Run new application Win, enter executable name or
 Win+R, enter executable name
 Cmd+Space, enter executable nameAlt+F2, enter executable name
Open new browser window with same page as currentCtrl+N (for both explorer.exe and iexplore.exe)
Make new folderCtrl+ Shift+N Shift+ Cmd+NCtrl+ Shift+N
Applications menu Win or
Alt + "n"
e.g. for _File_ Alt + f
Lock desktop Win+L[2]Ctrl+ Shift+Eject
(If "Require password after sleep or screen saver" is enabled in "System Preferences — Security & Privacy")
Show desktop Win+D or
 Win+M (then use  Win+ Shift+M to bring back all windows)
Log out user Shift+ Cmd+QCtrl+Alt+Delete
Switch active user Win+L[3]
Task managerCtrl+ Shift+EscCtrl+Alt+Delete[4]Alt+ Cmd+Esc
Rename objectF2 EnterF2
Open file or program Enter Cmd+O Enter
Switch to next/previous focused windowAlt+Tab  /
 Cmd+Tab  /
 Shift+ Cmd+Tab 
Alt+Tab  /
Alt+ Shift+Tab 
Switch focus to the next/previous window (without dialog)Alt+Esc /
Only works within single Applications
 Cmd+` /  Cmd+~
Open the Run dialog box Win+R Cmd+SpaceAlt+F2
Open the Search dialog box Win, enter executable name or
 Cmd+Space /

[edit]Power management

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME
Place computer into sleep/standby modeSleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel-->Power Options-->Advanced tab dialog box) Opt+ Cmd+Eject[5]Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel-->Power Options-->Advanced tab dialog box)
Shutdown computerpress window+R (shutdown -s -t time in seconds)Ctrl+ Opt+ Cmd+Eject
(no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)
Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageDown
(KDE; no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)
Restart computerCtrl+ Cmd+Eject[5]
(no confirmation, restart is immediate)
Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageUp
(KDE; no confirmation, restart is immediate)
Place display in sleep modeCtrl+ Shift+Eject
Bring up power/sleep dialog boxAlt+F4 (while on Desktop only)Ctrl+Eject


ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME
Save screenshot of entire screen as filePrint Screen Shift+ Cmd+3Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME Shell [6]
Copy screenshot of entire screen to clipboardPrint Screen or Ctrl+Print ScreenCtrl+ Shift+ Cmd+3Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME Shell [6]
Save screenshot of window as file Shift+ Cmd+4 then SpaceAlt+Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of window to clipboardAlt+Print ScreenCtrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4 then SpaceAlt+Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of arbitrary area to clipboardCtrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4
Save screenshot of arbitrary area as file Shift+ Cmd+4
ScreencastingCtrl+ Shift+Alt+R

[edit]Text editing

Many of these commands may be combined with  Shift to select a region of text.[9]
ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacsVim
Delete char to the right of cursorDel or Fn+← Backspace |DelDel, or Ctrl+dx
Delete word to the right of cursorCtrl+Del Opt+Del or
 OptFn+← Backspace
Delete word to the left of cursorCtrl+← Backspace Opt+← BackspaceCtrl+← BackspaceCtrl+← Backspace, or Meta+← Backspacedb
Go to start of lineHome Cmd+ or Ctrl+AHomeCtrl+a, or Home0
Go to end of lineEnd Cmd+ or Ctrl+EEndCtrl+e, or End$
Go to start of documentCtrl + Home Cmd+Ctrl + HomeMeta+<, or Ctrl+Homegg
Go to end of documentCtrl + End Cmd+Ctrl + EndMeta+>, or Ctrl+EndG
Go to previous wordCtrl+ Opt+Ctrl+Meta+b, or Ctrl+, or Meta+b
Go to next wordCtrl+ Opt+Ctrl+Meta+f, or Ctrl+, or Meta+w
Go to previous lineCtrl+p, or k
Go to next lineCtrl+n, or j
Go to previous line break (paragraph)Ctrl+ Opt+Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME)Meta+'{', or Control+{
Go to next line breakCtrl+ Opt+Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME)Meta+'}', or Control+}
Go to findCtrl+F Cmd+F
 Cmd+E (Search with current selection)
Ctrl+K (GNOME; interactive search)
Go to next search resultF3 Cmd+GCtrl+G (GNOME) or F3 (KDE)[10]Ctrl+sn
Go to previous search result Shift+F3 Shift+ Cmd+G Shift+Ctrl+G (GNOME) or  Shift+F3 (KDE)[10]Ctrl+rN
Search and replaceCtrl+H Cmd+FCtrl+H (GNOME) or Ctrl+R (KDE)Meta+%%s/fosh/fish/gc
Search a regular expressionCtrl+Meta+sAll search uses regular expressions.
Search and replace a regular expressionCtrl+Meta+%,

[edit]Text formatting

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME[11]EmacsVim
Make selected text bold/regularCtrl+B Cmd+BCtrl+B
Toggle underlining of selected textCtrl+U Cmd+UCtrl+U
Make selected text italic/regularCtrl+I Cmd+ICtrl+I
Change to upper/lower case Shift+F3 (Works for Microsoft Word and Powerpoint but not Microsoft Excel)[citation needed] Opt+ Cmd+CMeta+u for upper,
Meta+l for lower, Meta+c for capitalized.
gU for upper, gu for lower.
Make selected text superscriptCtrl+ Shift++Ctrl+ Cmd++ (Pages and Adobe Applications only?)Ctrl+ Shift+P[12]
Make selected text subscriptCtrl+=Ctrl+ Cmd+- (Pages and Adobe Applications only?)Ctrl+ Shift+B[12]
Make selected text larger/smallerCtrl+ Shift+>/Ctrl+ Shift+<,

[edit]Browsers / Go menu

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME
Go to Browser's Address BarAlt+D or Alt+C
according language
Go to the previous location in historyAlt+ or ← Backspace Cmd+[ or  Cmd+Alt+
Go to the next location in historyAlt+ or  Shift+← Backspace (web browser only) Cmd+] or  Cmd+Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchyAlt+(Vista and 7 only) or ← Backspace(Windows Explorer) Cmd+Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or applicationAlt+Home Cmd+HomeCtrl+Home (KDE) /
Alt+Home (GNOME)

[edit]Web browsers

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacs-w3m
Bookmarks menuCtrl+B Cmd+B (Firefox)Alt+Bv
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com)Ctrl+ Enter Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) or
Control+ Enter (Chrome)
Ctrl+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org)Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter Shift+ Cmd+ Enter (Firefox)Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net) Shift + Enter Shift + Enter (Firefox) Shift + Enter
Add bookmark for current pageCtrl+D Cmd+DCtrl+B /
Add bookmark for current linkMeta+a
Manage bookmarksCtrl+B Cmd+ Opt+B (Chrome/Safari) or
 Cmd+ Shift+B (Firefox)
Ctrl+ Shift+R /
Focus and select Web search barCtrl+E Cmd+E (Opera) or
 Cmd+K (Firefox) or
 Opt+ Cmd+F (Safari)
Focus and select address barCtrl+L or F6 or Alt+D Cmd+LCtrl+L or Alt+D or F6g
Refresh a webpageF5 or Ctrl+R Cmd+RF5 or Ctrl+RR
Open a new windowCtrl+N Cmd+N (Chrome)Ctrl+N
Zoom Options (zoom in +, zoom out -, zoom 100%)Ctrl++ and Ctrl+- and Ctrl+0 Cmd++ and  Cmd+- and  Cmd+0Ctrl++ and Ctrl+- and Ctrl+0

[edit]Tab management

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacs-w3m
Create a new tabCtrl+T Cmd+TCtrl+ Shift+N or Ctrl+ Shift+T or Ctrl+TCtrl+c, then Ctrl+t
Close current tabCtrl+W Cmd+WCtrl+W Mozilla Firefox [13] & Opera [14] & Chrom{e,ium} [15] & Arora [16] & Epiphany [17] & Midori
Close all tabs but the current oneCtrl+c, then Meta+w
Go to next tabCtrl+Tab Control+Tab  or  Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari)Ctrl+PageDown or Ctrl+Tab  or Ctrl+.Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+n
Go to previous tabCtrl+ Shift+Tab  Shift+Control+Tab  or  Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari)Ctrl+PageUp or Ctrl+ Shift+Tab  or Ctrl+,Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+p
Go to tab-nCtrl+n (Chrome/Firefox) Cmd+n (Chrome)Alt+n
Open a previously closed tabCtrl+ Shift+T Cmd+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome)Ctrl+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome)[15][18][19]Ctrl+ Shift+T (Firefox)[18]

[edit]Window management

ActionWindowsMac OSKDEGNOMEEmacs
Pop up window menuAlt+SpaceAlt+F3Alt+SpaceCtrl+`, then b
Close the focused window Shift+Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 or Ctrl+W or Alt+Space thenC[20] Cmd+WAlt+F4Alt+F4Ctrl+x, then k
Restore the focused window to its previous sizeAlt+Space then R[20]Alt+F5Ctrl+x, then r, then j, then letter of the window state register.
Move the focused windowAlt+Space then M[20] then Arrow Keys and  Enter(to save location)Alt+Mouse /
Alt+F3 then Mthen Arrow Keys
Alt+Mouse /
Alt+F7 then Arrow Keys
Resize the focused windowAlt+Space then S[20] then Arrow KeysAlt+F3 then Sthen Arrow KeysAlt+F8 then Arrow KeysCtrl+x, then ^ vertically
Hide the focused window Cmd+HMeta+x, then bury-buffer RET, thenRet
Hide all except the focused window Cmd+ Option+H
Minimize the focused windowAlt+Space then N,[20] or  Win+ (Windows 7 and Vista Home Premium) Cmd+MAlt+F3 then NAlt+F9Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, thenRet
Maximize the focused windowAlt+Space then X,[20] or  Win+ (Windows 7 only)Alt+F3 then XAlt+F10Ctrl+x, then 1
Maximize horizontallyAvailable, but no defaultAvailable, but no default
Maximize vertically Win+ Shift+ (Windows 7 only)Available, but no defaultAvailable, but no default
Minimize all Win+M or  Win+D Cmd+Alt+MAvailable, but no defaultCtrl+Alt+D
Minimize all non focused windows Win+Home (Windows 7 only)Available, but no default
Undo minimize all Shift+ Win+MAvailable, but no defaultCtrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal sizeF11F11F11
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbarDepends on application, system default: Cmd+CTRL+FCtrl+ Shift+FCtrl+F11
Rollup/down windowAvailable, but no defaultAlt+F12
Show all open windows Win+Tab F9 or
Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner oractive screen corner[21][22]
 Win works per desktop on Gnome 3+Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all windows of current applicationF3 or
Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner oractive screen corner[21][22]
Ctrl+`Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all workspacesF8 or
Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner oractive screen corner[21][22]
 Win then mouse over the desktop bar on the right edge of the screen
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace Win+/ (Windows 7 only)Available, but no defaultCtrl+Alt+ Shift+
 /  /  / 
Move window between multiple monitors Win+ Shift+/ (Windows 7 only)
Move window to workspace nAvailable, but no default
Switch to next/previous workspace listAvailable, but no default
Go to workspace nCtrl+nCtrl+Fn
Go to left/right/up/down workspace[23]Ctrl+ /
Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.5 to 10.6),Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.7)
Ctrl+Alt+ /
 /  / 
Show / hide desktop Win+DF11 or
Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner oractive screen corner[21][22]
Ctrl+Alt+DCtrl+Alt+D user specific, no default
Activate window demanding attention
Quit application of current windowAlt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies[24] Cmd+Q[25]Ctrl+Alt+Escq
Close dialogEscEsc
Open/Focus (preview) pinned program on the taskbar Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows 7 Taskbar (Windows 7 only)
Open new program window of pinned program in Quick Launch Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Quick Launch toolbar (Windows Vista and 7)
Open new program window of the pinned program on the taskbar (if program is already opened) Win+ Shift+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows 7 Taskbar (Windows 7 only)
Focus the first taskbar entry. Pressing again will cycle through them Win+T, you can  back and forth. Hold  Shift to cycle backwards (Windows 7 only)
Peek at the desktop Win+Space (Windows 7 only)F11 or
Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner oractive screen corner[21][22]
Bring gadgets to the front of the Z-order and cycle between gadgets Win+G (Windows Vista,7) or  Win+Space (Vista only, no cycling)
External display options (mirror, extend desktop, etc.) Win+P (Windows 7 only)

[edit]User interface navigation (widgets and controls)

ActionWindowsMac OSKDEGNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous controlTab  / Shift+Tab With full keyboard access active (System Preferences > Keyboard > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls)
Tab  /  Shift+Tab 
Tab  / Shift+Tab Tab  /  Shift+Tab 
Ctrl+Tab  /  Shift+Ctrl+Tab 
Pop up tooltip for currently focused control Shift+F1Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control Shift+F1 Cmd+? Shift+F1 Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous paneCtrl+F6 / Alt+F6 Cmd+`F6 /  Shift+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned windowF8
Give focus to window's menu barF10 or Alt Cmd+ Shift+/, then type command name, or
Ctrl+F2 (or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards)
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects (akacontext menu) Shift+F10 or MenuVaries with laptop / extended keyboard type; enable Mouse keys in Universal Access, then Function+Ctrl+5 or Ctrl+5 (numeric keypad) or Function+Ctrl+i (laptop) Menu Menu or  Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle buttonSpaceSpaceSpaceSpace
Activate focused button, menu item etc. EnterSpace (also  Enter for menu items) Enter Enter
Select/move to first/last item in selected widgetHome / EndHome / End
Scroll selected view by one page up/left/down/right / 
(or Fn+}+Fn+ on some keyboards)
PageUp / Ctrl+PageUp /
PageDown / Ctrl+PageDown
Scroll selected view to top/bottom or on MacBook Pro Fn +  Opt + 
 or on MacBook Pro Fn +  Opt + 
Switch focus to the next/previous tab within a windowCtrl+Tab Ctrl+Tab  /
Ctrl+Tab  ->
Ctrl+ Shift+Tab  <- p="p">
Switch focus to the next/previous panel on the desktopCtrl+Alt+Tab  / Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Tab 
Switch focus to the next/previous panel (without dialog)Ctrl+Alt+Esc /

[edit]Command line shortcuts

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used in a command line environment.
ActionMicrosoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
(Windows PowerShell)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(POSIX shell)
Scroll through History of typed commands/// or Ctrl+P/Ctrl+NESC K/ESC J
Signal end-of-fileCtrl+ZCtrl+D
Abort current command/typingCtrl+CCtrl+CCtrl+CCtrl+C
Erase word to the leftCtrl+← BackspaceCtrl+W
Erase word to the rightCtrl+DeleteAlt+D
Erase line to the leftCtrl+HomeCtrl+U
Erase line to the rightCtrl+EndCtrl+EndCtrl+K
Yank/paste previously erased stringCtrl+Y
Move one word to the left (backward)Ctrl+Ctrl+Alt+B
Move one word to the right (forward)Ctrl+Ctrl+Alt+F
Move to beginning of lineHomeHomeCtrl+A
or Home
Move to end of lineEndEndCtrl+E
or End
Reverse search of historyF8F8Ctrl+R
Stop execution of the current jobCtrl+Z
Insert the next character typed verbatimCtrl+V
Autocomplete command/file nameTab  (enabled by default in Windows XP and later)Tab Tab  (usually once)Esc (usually twice)
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Shift+Ins
Scroll window up Shift+PageUp (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageUp
Scroll window down Shift+PageDown (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageDown


  • In Windows, it is possible to disable these shortcuts using the Accessibility or Ease of Access control panel.
  • ***In GNOME, these shortcuts are possible if Universal Access is enabled.
ActionWindowsMac OSKDEGNOME
Utility Manager Win+U
Use keyboard to control cursor(Left Alt+Left Shift+Numlock[26]
Allow user to press shortcuts one key at a time( Shift 5 times)***( Shift 5 times) [27]
Hear beep when -lock key pressed(Numlock for 5 seconds)
Stop/slow repeating characters when key is pressed(Right Shift for 8 seconds)***( Shift for 8 seconds)[28]
Inverse (Reverse Colors) ModeLeft Alt+Left Shift+PrtScn Cmd+ Opt+Ctrl+8

[edit]See also

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